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It is also clear that in medicine, there are research centers, clinics, medical schools and hospitals whose reputation ( ) them an authority that transcends national frontiers and that works not only over the customers but also over the suppliers.

A.confers on B.confers with C.confides to D.confides in

Armstrong has denied this charge repeatedly-successfully suing over the issue and is reluctant to talk about it now, ( ) that he has nothing new to say.

A.on ground B.on a ground C.on such ground D.on the grounds

Ms. Turkle can sound primly ( ), complaining that the sight at a local cafe of people focusing on their computers as they drink their coffee bothers her.

A.sanctimony B.sanctity C.sanctimonious D.sanctuary
s="" been="" a="" long="" day.Would you (5)spending a quiet evening at home (6)?A: No, not really. I’ll phone Silvia and tell her that we’ll go out with her other (7) night.'>

A: Silvia has suggested(1) to the cinema this evening. How do you feel (2)that?B: To tell the(3) , I’m not really in the(4) to go out again. It's been a long day.Would you (5)spending a quiet evening at home (6)?A: No, not really. I’ll phone Silvia and tell her that we’ll go out with her other (7) night.

Neither the urban nor rural problems discussed above can be addressed in isolation: in the absence of significant improvements in agricultural productivity, raising incomes will require the transfer of labor into non-agricultural production. Migration—which takes place predominantly from poorer to wealthier and from rural to urban areas—can be regional or international, as well as domestic, but internal migration is generally the main option for the poorest, or those from the poorest regions, due to the lower costs involved. In the context of the current discussion, migration should be viewed as part of an inevitable process of structural change that contributes to rising productivity and increasing incomes in rural areas, while meeting demands for labor in industrial and urban areas.Precisely because of the concentration of urban 4problems1 highlighted above, however, the process of migration to urban areas, and by extension migrants themselves, are often regarded by policy-makers and the urban population as part of the problem, eliciting negative policy responses. These include residential or mobility restrictions, limits on access to social services and public goods, or differential pricing structures (schooling in China). The costs of migrating can be raised indirectly—through discrimination in employment or housing, by regulations designed to control mobility, residence or work requirements, and through public messages and stereotypes that stigmatize migrants, often blaming them for crime or unrest.Despite such direct or indirect disincentives, internal migration (seasonal or temporary, or longer-term) is huge and increasing rapidly. China has seen approximately 120 million rural residents move for varying lengths of time to cities in search of work, India has an estimated 30 million seasonal migrant laborers, other countries lack data but the documented trends show a widespread increase. Positive incentives or support systems — assistance in finding jobs, appropriate training or improved access to services, or enforcement of employment protections and other rights-remain the exception, however.Growing evidence illustrates the contribution made by migrants to economic growth (building and servicing cities, industries and the export sector), as well as to the development of rural areas and the alleviation of poverty (via remittances, transfer of skills and reducing surplus labor in agriculture). Recent studies from a number of countries-including India, China, Thailand and Vietnam—show that remittances now account for a significant proportion of annual household income, and may even exceed the contribution from agriculture. Remittances substitute for lack of access to credit in rural areas, and are used to finance expenses ranging from food, education and health care, weddings and funerals, to the purchase of productive assets. In Bangladesh and Vietnam evidence suggests that the injection of cash into the economy stimulates the land market, increases local wages and generally improves the local economy. While international migration, through remittances or the return of skilled labor, is important to economies overall, and analyses suggest an impact on poverty reduction in some countries, internal migration is more important in the context of the very poor.

1.What is the most appropriate title for this passage?2.What does the author mainly talk about in paragraph 2?3.What is the meaning of the last sentence in paragraph 3?4.What does the author want to prove by mentioning as some examples a number of countries, including India, China, Thailand and Vietnam in paragraph 4?5.What will the following paragraph probably discuss?

When Jane fell of the bike, the other children( ).

A.were not able to help laughter B.could not help laughing C.could not help but laughing D.could not help but to laugh

There is no doubt that dishonest or ( )acquisition of information is usually overwhelming evidence that information was confidential and not part of the defendant’s skill and knowledge.

A.blatant B.surreptitious C.suspicious D.conspicuous

Dr. Kissing’s statement could ( ) as well as a description of Kuwait’s situation just before the Iraqi invasion in January 1991.

A.be B.become C.stand D.go

One of the main ways to stay out of trouble with government agents is to keep a low ( ), i. e. stay away from those situations wherein you call attention to yourself.

A.manner B.position C.profile D.station

Britain’s hope of a gold medal in the Olympic Games suffered( ) yesterday, when Hunter failed to qualify during preliminary session.

A.a severe set-back B.sharp set-back C.a severe blown-up D.sharp blown-up

(1) of a series of unforeseen problems, Professor Bandini and his research group don’t have(2 )money to finish their current project. Bandini has(3) to the ministry for (4)funds.

The poor industrialist had said that the minimum wage would put him out of business, ( )by the noble academic that it would not need to if he ran his company properly.

A.to be only told B.only being told C.only to be told D.being only told

My brother let a help him repair his car over the weekend. He knows that I’m not very familiar with car engines, and I told him that I had other things to do,but he insisted thatgive him a hand.

A.let a help B.repair his car over the weekend. C.familiar with car engines D.insisted that give him a hand. E.没有问题

Government is an institution resulting from man’s group way of life which maintains a set of social controls in order to prevent chaos. In a small,homogeneous,simple society, these social controls can be imposed and enforced by the family or clan. But in a large, heterogeneous complex society,the institution of government takes over this function.For purposes of analysis,social control may be divided into moral control and political control. Moral control derives from the internalized beliefs and values of a society and regulations, each individual’s behavior without the use of outside enforcement. Political control does involve enforcement from the outside since the individual is not always certain that the rule he is following is just and right. He follows it to conform,to avoid punishment, or to receive social rewards.Political control is an outgrowth of moral control,and its effectiveness depends on the willingness of the members of society to accept the government’s authority as just and right. A government that is forced to coerce or threaten most of its members into accepting political control not backed with moral control will not survive long. In addition,a wide discrepancy between moral and political control will result in a condition of general lawlessness. Such a condition has occurred in the United States on several occasions and is now evident among some groups of society according to “The Roots of Lawlessness” by historian Henry Steele Commander.Government, a major social institution, may be viewed as a set of procedures by which a society realizes a good portion of its goals. Government is further unique as an institution because it serves to reinforce the function of other institutions. Thus,individuals violating the rules and regulation of the economic,educational,or family institutions must ultimately face the punitive power of government.1.A condition characterized by the absence of social organization and social control, and by the belief that political authority is unnecessary is( ).2.The internalized form of social control is( ).3.Legitimate power rightfully exercised is called( ).4.Which statement is NOT correct?

A.moral control B.political power C.anarchy D.authority
A.commitment B.power C.authority D.government
A.authority B.charisma C.legitimacy D.morality
A.Political control must occasionally be controlled by an outside force. B.Political control can exist without moral control in a society. C.Political control reinforce moral control. D.Political control emanates from within.

The Federal Government ( )farmers by buying their surplus crops at prices above the market value.

A.pirates B.mediates C.supplements D.subsidizes

Therefore, [A] since technical advances in food production and [B] processing will perhaps be needed to ensure [C] food availability, meeting food needs will depend [D] much more on equalizing economic power among the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves.

A.since B.processing C.food availability D.much more

If a person talks about his weak points, his listener is expected to say something in the way of ( ).

A.persuasion B.remedy C.encouragement D.compromise

The relationship between the home and market economies has gone through two distinct stages. Early industrialization began the process of transferring some production processes (e.g. clothmaking, sewing and canning foods) from the home to the marketplace. Although the home economy could still produce these goods, the processes were laborious and the market economy was usually more efficient. Soon, the more important second stage was evident-the marketplace began producing goods and services that had never been produced by the home economy, and the home economy was unable to produce them (e.g. Electricity and electrical appliances, the automobile, advanced education, sophisticated medical care). In the second stage, the question of whether the home economy was less efficient in producing these new goods and services was irrelevant; if the family were to enjoy these fruits of industrialization, they would have to be obtained in the marketplace. The traditional ways of taking care of these needs in the home, such as in nursing the sick, became socially unacceptable (and, in most serious cases, probably less successful).Just as the appearance of the automobile made the use of the horse-drawn carriage illegal and then impractical, and the appearance of television changed the radio from a source of entertainment to a source of background music, so most of the fruits of economic growth did not increase the options available to the home economy to either produce the goods or services or purchase them in the market. Growth brought with it increased variety in consumer goods, but nor increased flexibility for the home economy in obtaining these goods and services. Instead, economic growth brought with it increased consumer reliance on the marketplace. In order to consume these new goods and services, the family had to enter the marketplace as wage earners and consumers. The neoclassical model that views the family as deciding whether to produce goods and services directly or to purchase them in the marketplace is basically a model of the first stage. It cannot accurately be applied to the second (and current) stage.1.The neoclassical model is basically a model of the first stage, because at this stage( )2.It can be seen from the passage that in the second stage ( ).3.The reason why many production processes were taken over by the marketplace was that( )4.Economic growth did not make it more flexible for the home economy to obtain the new goods and services because ( ).5.During the second stage, if the family wanted to consume new goods and services, they had to enter the marketplace( ) .

A.the family could rely either on the home economy or on the marketplace for the needed goods and services B.many production processes were being transferred to the marketplace C.consumers relied more and more on the market economy D.the family could decide how to transfer production processes to the marketplace
A.some traditional goods and services were not successful when provided by the home economy B.the market economy provided new goods and services never produced by the homeeconomy C.producing traditional goods at home became socially unacceptable D.whether new goods and services were produced by the home economy became irrelevant
A.it was a necessary step in the process of industrialization B.they depended on electricity available only to the market economy C.it was troublesome to produce such goods in the home D.the marketplace was more efficient with respect to these processes
A.the family was not efficient in production B.it was illegal for the home economy to produce them C.it could not supply them by itself D.the market for these goods and services was limited
A.as wage earners B.both as manufactures and consumers C.both as workers and purchasers D.as customers

The role of American women ( )significantly from the time the nation was born, to the modern era of the 1950s and 1960s.

A.has changed B.has been changed C.changed D.had been changed

This year will difficult for this organization because ( ).

A.they have less money and volunteers than they had last year B.it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year C.the last year it did not have as few volunteers and money D.there are fewer money and volunteers than in the last year there were
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