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Even Intelligent People Can Fail
1 The striking thing about the innovators who succeeded in making our modern world is
how often they failed.Turn on a light,take a photograph,watch TV,search the Web,jet
across the Pacific Ocean, talk on a celiphone(手机).The innovators who left us these
things had to find the way to success through a maze(错综复杂)of wrong turns.
2 We have just celebrated the 125th anniversary of American innovator Thomas Edison's
success in heating a thin line to white-hot heat for 14 hours in his lab in New Jersey,U.S.
He did that on October 22,1879,and followed up a month later by keeping a thread of
common cardboard alight(点亮着的)in an airless space for 45 hours.Three years later
he went on to light up half a square mile of downtown Manhattan,even though only one of
the six power plants in his design worked when he turned it on,on September 4,1882.
3 "Many of life's failures,"the supreme innovator said,"are people who did not realize
how close they were to success when they gave up."Before that magical moment in
October 1879,Edison had worked out no fewer than 3,000 theories about electric light,but
in only two cases did his experiments work.
4 No one likes failure,but the smart innovators learn from it.Mark Gumz,the head of
the camera maker Olympus America Inc,attributes some of the company's successes in
technology to understanding failure.His popular phrase is:"You only fail when you quit."
5 Over two centuries,the most common quality of the innovators has been persistence.
That is another way of saying they had the emotional ability to keep up what they were
doing.Walt Disney,the founder of Disneyland,was so broke after a succession of
financial failures that he was left shoeless in his office because he could not afford the U.S.
$1.50 to get his shoes from the repair shop.Pioneering car maker Henry Ford failed with
one company and was forced out of another before he developed the Model T car.
6 Failure is harder to bear in today's open,accelerated world.Hardly any innovation works the
first time.But an impatient society and the media want instant success.When American music
and movie master David Geffen had a difficult time,a critic said nastily that the only difference
between Geffen Records(Geffen's company)and the Titanic(the ship that went down)was
that the Titanic had better music.Actually,it wasn't.After four years of losses,Geffen had so
many hits(成功的作品)he could afford a ship as big as the Titanic all to himself.
Paragraph 4_________
A:Importance of learning from failure
B:Quality shared by most innovators
C:Edison's innovation
D:Edison's comment on failure
E:Contributions made by innovators
F:Miseries endured by innovators
When she was invited to the party,she readily accepted.
Words and Word Origins
When you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.
Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.
The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.
Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.
Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye".
A解析:be composed of'“由······组成”,固定搭配。这句话是说,每种语言都是由几种早期语言组成的。
trace back“追溯”,固定搭配。这句话是说,语言词汇的起源有时可以追溯到两到三种不同的语言。
of可用于be动词后,表示某人或某事物具有的特点或特性。例如,Both world wars were of unquestionable importance as economic events.两次世界大战都是重要性无可置疑的经济事件。
later“后来”。这里的意思是,它后来变成把指导写在小卡片上的习俗。A 选项late表示“晚的”,B选项lately表示“近来”,D选项latest表示“最近的,最新的”。
expression“表达”。“再见”这里是一种表达。A选项“陈述,观点”、C选项 “谚语”、D选项“对话”都不符合原文意思。
each other“彼此”,固定搭配。这句话是说,人们在分别时对彼此说。
retold“重复说”,retell的被动形式。A选项的意思是“复制,重现,繁殖”, B选项的意思是“修订”, C选项的意思是“回顾,审查,复习”。
shorten"缩短”。这句话的意思是,被重复说了上百万次后,逐渐缩短成了 "Goodbye”。
Can Mobile Phones Cause Disease?
1 "Mobile phone killed my man,"screamed one headline last year.Also came claims
that an unpublished study had found that mobile phones cause memory loss.And a British
newspaper devoted its front page to a picture supposedly(假定地)showing how mobile
phones heat the brain.
2 For anyone who uses a mobile phone,these are worrying times.But speak to the scientists
whose work is the focus of these scares and you will hear a different story.According to them,
there is no evidence that mobile phones cause cancer or any other illness in people.
3 What we do have,however, are some results suggesting that mobile phones'
emissions have a variety of strange effects on living tissue that can't be explained by the
general radiation biology.And it's only when the questions raised by these experiments are
answered that we'll be able to say for sure what mobile phones might be doing to the head.
4 One of the odd effects comes from the now famous"memory loss" study.Alan Preece
and his colleagues at the University of Bristol placed a device that imitated the microwave
emissions of mobile phones to the left ear of volunteers.The volunteers were just as good
at recalling words and pictures they had been shown on a computer screen whether or not
the device was switched on.Preece says he still can't comment on the Effects of using a
mobile phone for years on end.But he rules out the suggestion that mobile phones have an
immediate effect on our cognitive abilities." I'm pretty sure there is no effect on short-term
memory,"he says.
5 Another expert,Tattersall,remarked that his latest findings have removed fears about
memory loss.One result, for instance, suggests that nerve cell synapses(突触)
exposed to microwaves become more一rather than less一receptive(感受的)to undergoing
changes linked to memory formation.
6 Hopefully,microwaves might turn out to be good for you.It sounds crazy,but a couple
of years ago a team led by William Adey at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in California
found that mice exposed to microwaves for two hours a day were less likely to develop brain
tumours when given a cancer-causing chemical.
Tattersall said for sure that the________over memory loss caused by mobile phones was unqrounded.
A:different messages
B:is hoped
C:public attention
D:solid evidence
E:attracted public attention
F:public anxiety
The Tough Grass that Sweetens Our Lives
Sugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their
houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖)and
was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown
throughout the world.___________(46)
Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things, from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine,
and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable._________(47)Many
crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the health
of the plant would continue to deteriorate.
In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger
and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild
species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type.
_________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is
expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.
___________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna-
tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teams
of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are
important for the production of sugar and its overall health.
Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes function in sugar
cane.__________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a dis-
ease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scien-
tists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust.
A:The majority of the world's sugar now comes from this particular commercial species.
B:Unfortunately,however,the plant started to become weaker and more prone to disease.
C:Eventually,a commercial plant was developed which was 5 percent sweeter than before,but also much stronger and less likely to die from disease.
D:Since the 1960s,scientists have been analysing the mysteries of the sugar cane's genetic code.
E:One major gene has been identified by Dr Angelique D'Hont and her team in Montpelier,France.
F: Sugar cane is now much more vigorous and the supply of sugar is therefore more guaranteed.
A解析:前一句话提到,甘蔗成了一种非常有价值的商业作物,在世界范围种植起来。因此这 句话应该是讲种植甘蔗成了获得糖的主要来源。故选A。
前面一句说由于对糖需求的增加,种植甘蔗这一行业也得以壮大并且获利更多。后面 一句提到,很多甘蔗作物枯萎并且死掉,尽管种植者试图去救治它们,大家还是担心甘蔗的健 康状况会持续恶化。所以中间的句子应该是承接的转折句。故选B。
前面讲到,科学家们正在寻找一种能使商业型甘蔗更强壮、抗病性更高的方法。他 们实验把野生甘蔗的基因和商业用甘蔗的基因相结合。后面一句讲这种类型的甘蔗还没有 开始商业化地出售。由此可知,中间的句子应该是讲将研发的这种商业型甘蔗的特点。故 选C。
该句位于段首应该是主题句。根据后面的内容该段主要讲,巴西这个甘蔗生产大国和 一位教授合作来研究在甘蔗的基因结构中,哪一部分对生产糖最重要以及甘蔗整体的健康状 况。故选D,意思是“从二十世纪六十年代起,科学家们就开始分析甘蔗基因的神秘性。”
前一句讲,尽管做了这么多的研究,但是我们仍不清楚甘蔗的基因情况。后一句开头说“这一基因之所以独特地存在是因为······”,这里提到的这一基因(this gene)应该是新发现 的。故选E。第6部分:完形填空
The Family
The structure of a family takes different forms around the world and even in the same society.The family's form changes as it adapts to changing social and economic influences.
Until recently,the most common form in North America was the nuclear family,consisting of a married couple with their minor children.The nuclear family is an independent unit,It must be prepared to fend for itself.Individual family members strongly depend on one another.There is little help from outside the family in emergencies.Elderly relatives of a nuclear family are cared for only if it is possible for the family to do so.In North America,the elderly often do not live with the family;they live in retirement communities and nursing homes.
There are many parallels between the nuclear family in industrial societies,such as
North America,and of families in societies such as that of the Inuits,who live in harsh environments.The nuclear family structure is well adapted to a life of mobility.In harsh conditions,mobility allows the family to hunt for food.For North Americans,the hunt for jobs and improved social status also requires mobility.
The nuclear family was not always the North American standard.In a more agrarian time,the small nuclear family was usually part of a larger extended family.This might have included grandparents,mother and father,brothers and sisters,uncles,aunts,and cousins.
In North America today,there is a dramatic rise in the number of single-parent households.
Twice as many households in the United States are headed by divorced,separated,or nevermarried individuals as are comprised of nuclear families.The structure of the family,not just in North America,but throughout the world,continues to change as it adapts to changing conditions.
The information in this passage would most likely be found in______.
A:an anthropology textbook
B:a biology textbook
C:a mathematics textbook
D:a geography textbook
题干意为“核心家庭的定义是什么?”该题为细节题,第一段的第三句话对核心家庭进行了定义Until recently,the most common form in North America was the nudle-ar family, consisting of a married couple with their minor children.该句意为“直到最近,北美洲最普遍的家庭形式为核心家庭,由一对夫妇和他们未成年的孩子构成”。由此可知A“由一对夫妇和他们未成年的孩子构成的家庭”是答案。
题干意为“mobility是什么意思?”mobility是mobile“可移动的,机动的”的名词形式。首先在短文中找到mobihty存在的语境: (第二段)There are many parallels between the nuclear family in industrial societies, such as North America,and of families in societies such as that of the Inuits,who live in harsh environments.The nuclear familystructure is well adapted to a life of mobility.In harsh conditions,mobility allows the family to hunt for food.For North Americans,the hunt for jobs and improved social status also requires mobility.mobility所在的上下文意为“核心家庭结构良好地适应于……的生活。在恶劣的条件下,……能让一个家庭吃饱饭,对北美洲人来说,找工作和提高社会地位同样需要……。”四个选项中,A“钱”,B“随时准备迁居”,C“组织,机构”,D“技能,技巧”,显然B“随时准备迁居”填入mobility所在的语境中合适,因此答案为B。
Brotherly Love
Adidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a century.
Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad
Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins
in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.
Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they
could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes
that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of
athletic shoes with spikes(钉),produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.
On 1 st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many
years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and
1932 Olympic Games.
But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug-
gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick-
name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.
Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to
call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat
has hardly changed since.
After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companies
have now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders,
though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma. A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written a
song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.
The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years
ago ,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk to
each other.
Nike makes more shoes than Adidas.
C:Not mentioned
C解析:文章第五、六段讲到,1948年两兄弟吵架之后分别成立了公司:阿迪达斯和彪马。由此 可知,阿迪达斯和彪马是在19世纪中期开始生产鞋的。
文章最后一段提到自两兄弟吵架后的60年里,他们所在的城镇就分成了两部分,直到 现在一些阿迪达斯的员工和彪马的员工都还不说话。由此可知,两兄弟是在家乡做鞋的。
根据文章第五段第二句话“but family members have suggested that the argument was about money or women”可知,两兄弟吵架不是为了鞋。
You should have blended the butter with the sugar thoroughly.
In the background was that eternal hum.
A Lucky Break
Actor Antonio Banderas is used to breaking bones,and it always seems to happen when he's______(1) sport.In the film Play It to the Bone he______(2) the part of a middleweight boxer alongside Woody Harrelson.______(3)the making of the film Harrelson______(4) complaining that the fight______(5)weren't very convincing,so one day he suggested that he and Banderas should have a fight for real.The Spanish actor wasn't______(6)on the idea at first,but he was______(7) persuaded by his co-star to put on his gloves and climb into the boxing ring.However,when he realized how seriously his______(8) was taking it all,he began to regret his decision to fight.
And then in the third round,Harrelson hit Banderas______(9)hard in the face that he actually broke his nose.His wife,actress Melanie Griffith,was furious that he had been playing“silly macho games”.“She was right,”confesses Banderas,“and I was a fool to______(10)a risk like that in the middle of a movie.”
He was______(11)of the time he broke his leg during a football match in his native Malaga.He had always______(12)of becoming a soccer star,of performing in front of a big crowd,but doctors told him his playing days were probably over.“That's when I decided to take______(13) acting;I saw it as______(14)way of performing,and achieving recognition.What happened to me on that football______(15)was,you might say,my first lucky break.”
B解析:根据句意,“每次骨折似乎总是发生在做运动时”,应当选用动词do。practise “练习”,后面应跟某一项具体的训练,而不是sport,所以正确答案为C。
play the part of...为固定搭配,意为“扮演一个……的角色”,其他三项均不合适。
根据句意,“Harrelson在影片制作过程中不断地抱怨……”,而且后面的动词complain用的是ing形式,因此动词keep“连续,不断”最为恰当。continue后加动词ing 形式一般表示在停顿后重新开始、继续,carry一般后面跟介词on,表示“进行某项事务”,insist 表示“坚决主张”,不合句意,所以选A。
be keen on为固定搭配,表示“对……感兴趣,对……热衷”,interest后面配介词in, enthusiastic后面配介词of。
联系上下文,作者要表达的是“最终他还是被他的搭档说服了”,副词eventu-ally放在动词persuade之前,lastly表示“最后一点,最后”,“at the end”一般放在段落的最后,表示“最后”。
so...that…固定搭配,意为“太……以至于”,根据句意,“ Harrelson如此重重地打在Banderas的脸上,以至于居然打破了 Banderas的鼻子”,其他选项都不适合。
固定搭配take a risk,表示“冒险”。
联系上下文,根据句意,“他记起在他的故乡马拉加进行的一场足球比赛”, 是因为鼻子骨折这件事促使他想起了故乡的那次比赛,remind表示“提醒”,符合句意。remember表示“自然想起,记起”不合句意。
根据句意和后面的介词of,显然,“他一直梦想成为一名足球明星”,dream 是正确答案。pretend“假装”,后面跟介词to,不合句意;look forward表示“向往”,后面跟介词 to,不合句意。
固定搭配take up sth.,表示“开始从事某事”,根据句意,作者要表达的是 “我决定开始演戏”,因此A项up是正确答案。
词组football pitch,表示“足球场”。前面由介词on引导,后面一定是场地,也就是足球场,而不是match“比赛”。court表示“网球场”,course表示“跑道”,均不符合句意。
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