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Even Intelligent People Can Fail
1 The striking thing about the innovators who succeeded in making our modern world is
how often they failed.Turn on a light,take a photograph,watch TV,search the Web,jet
across the Pacific Ocean, talk on a celiphone(手机).The innovators who left us these
things had to find the way to success through a maze(错综复杂)of wrong turns.
2 We have just celebrated the 125th anniversary of American innovator Thomas Edison's
success in heating a thin line to white-hot heat for 14 hours in his lab in New Jersey,U.S.
He did that on October 22,1879,and followed up a month later by keeping a thread of
common cardboard alight(点亮着的)in an airless space for 45 hours.Three years later
he went on to light up half a square mile of downtown Manhattan,even though only one of
the six power plants in his design worked when he turned it on,on September 4,1882.
3 "Many of life's failures,"the supreme innovator said,"are people who did not realize
how close they were to success when they gave up."Before that magical moment in
October 1879,Edison had worked out no fewer than 3,000 theories about electric light,but
in only two cases did his experiments work.
4 No one likes failure,but the smart innovators learn from it.Mark Gumz,the head of
the camera maker Olympus America Inc,attributes some of the company's successes in
technology to understanding failure.His popular phrase is:"You only fail when you quit."
5 Over two centuries,the most common quality of the innovators has been persistence.
That is another way of saying they had the emotional ability to keep up what they were
doing.Walt Disney,the founder of Disneyland,was so broke after a succession of
financial failures that he was left shoeless in his office because he could not afford the U.S.
$1.50 to get his shoes from the repair shop.Pioneering car maker Henry Ford failed with
one company and was forced out of another before he developed the Model T car.
6 Failure is harder to bear in today's open,accelerated world.Hardly any innovation works the
first time.But an impatient society and the media want instant success.When American music
and movie master David Geffen had a difficult time,a critic said nastily that the only difference
between Geffen Records(Geffen's company)and the Titanic(the ship that went down)was
that the Titanic had better music.Actually,it wasn't.After four years of losses,Geffen had so
many hits(成功的作品)he could afford a ship as big as the Titanic all to himself.
Paragraph 4_________
A:Importance of learning from failure
B:Quality shared by most innovators
C:Edison's innovation
D:Edison's comment on failure
E:Contributions made by innovators
F:Miseries endured by innovators
When she was invited to the party,she readily accepted.
Words and Word Origins
When you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.
Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.
The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.
Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.
Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye".
Can Mobile Phones Cause Disease?
1 "Mobile phone killed my man,"screamed one headline last year.Also came claims
that an unpublished study had found that mobile phones cause memory loss.And a British
newspaper devoted its front page to a picture supposedly(假定地)showing how mobile
phones heat the brain.
2 For anyone who uses a mobile phone,these are worrying times.But speak to the scientists
whose work is the focus of these scares and you will hear a different story.According to them,
there is no evidence that mobile phones cause cancer or any other illness in people.
3 What we do have,however, are some results suggesting that mobile phones'
emissions have a variety of strange effects on living tissue that can't be explained by the
general radiation biology.And it's only when the questions raised by these experiments are
answered that we'll be able to say for sure what mobile phones might be doing to the head.
4 One of the odd effects comes from the now famous"memory loss" study.Alan Preece
and his colleagues at the University of Bristol placed a device that imitated the microwave
emissions of mobile phones to the left ear of volunteers.The volunteers were just as good
at recalling words and pictures they had been shown on a computer screen whether or not
the device was switched on.Preece says he still can't comment on the Effects of using a
mobile phone for years on end.But he rules out the suggestion that mobile phones have an
immediate effect on our cognitive abilities." I'm pretty sure there is no effect on short-term
memory,"he says.
5 Another expert,Tattersall,remarked that his latest findings have removed fears about
memory loss.One result, for instance, suggests that nerve cell synapses(突触)
exposed to microwaves become more一rather than less一receptive(感受的)to undergoing
changes linked to memory formation.
6 Hopefully,microwaves might turn out to be good for you.It sounds crazy,but a couple
of years ago a team led by William Adey at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in California
found that mice exposed to microwaves for two hours a day were less likely to develop brain
tumours when given a cancer-causing chemical.
Tattersall said for sure that the________over memory loss caused by mobile phones was unqrounded.
A:different messages
B:is hoped
C:public attention
D:solid evidence
E:attracted public attention
F:public anxiety
The Tough Grass that Sweetens Our Lives
Sugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their
houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖)and
was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown
throughout the world.___________(46)
Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things, from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine,
and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable._________(47)Many
crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the health
of the plant would continue to deteriorate.
In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger
and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild
species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type.
_________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is
expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.
___________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna-
tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teams
of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are
important for the production of sugar and its overall health.
Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes function in sugar
cane.__________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a dis-
ease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scien-
tists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust.
A:The majority of the world's sugar now comes from this particular commercial species.
B:Unfortunately,however,the plant started to become weaker and more prone to disease.
C:Eventually,a commercial plant was developed which was 5 percent sweeter than before,but also much stronger and less likely to die from disease.
D:Since the 1960s,scientists have been analysing the mysteries of the sugar cane's genetic code.
E:One major gene has been identified by Dr Angelique D'Hont and her team in Montpelier,France.
F: Sugar cane is now much more vigorous and the supply of sugar is therefore more guaranteed.
The Family
The structure of a family takes different forms around the world and even in the same society.The family's form changes as it adapts to changing social and economic influences.
Until recently,the most common form in North America was the nuclear family,consisting of a married couple with their minor children.The nuclear family is an independent unit,It must be prepared to fend for itself.Individual family members strongly depend on one another.There is little help from outside the family in emergencies.Elderly relatives of a nuclear family are cared for only if it is possible for the family to do so.In North America,the elderly often do not live with the family;they live in retirement communities and nursing homes.
There are many parallels between the nuclear family in industrial societies,such as
North America,and of families in societies such as that of the Inuits,who live in harsh environments.The nuclear family structure is well adapted to a life of mobility.In harsh conditions,mobility allows the family to hunt for food.For North Americans,the hunt for jobs and improved social status also requires mobility.
The nuclear family was not always the North American standard.In a more agrarian time,the small nuclear family was usually part of a larger extended family.This might have included grandparents,mother and father,brothers and sisters,uncles,aunts,and cousins.
In North America today,there is a dramatic rise in the number of single-parent households.
Twice as many households in the United States are headed by divorced,separated,or nevermarried individuals as are comprised of nuclear families.The structure of the family,not just in North America,but throughout the world,continues to change as it adapts to changing conditions.
The information in this passage would most likely be found in______.
A:an anthropology textbook
B:a biology textbook
C:a mathematics textbook
D:a geography textbook
Brotherly Love
Adidas and Puma have been two of the biggest names in sports shoe manufacturing for over half a century.
Since 1928 they have supplied shoes for Olympic athletes,World Cup-winning football heroes,Muhammad
Ali,hip hop stars and rock musicians famous all over the world.But the story of these two companies begins
in one house in the town of Herzogenaurach,Germany.
Adolph and Rudolph Dassler were the sons of a shoemaker. They loved sports but complained that they
could never find comfortable shoes to play in.Rudolph always said,"You cannot play sports wearing shoes
that you'd walk around town with."So they started making their own.In 1920 Adolph made the first pair of
athletic shoes with spikes(钉),produced on the Dasslers'kitchen table.
On 1 st July 1924 they formed a shoe company,Dassler Brothers Ltd and they worked together for many
years.The company became successful and it provided the shoes for Germany's athletes at the 1928 and
1932 Olympic Games.
But in 1948 the brothers argued.No one knows exactly what happened,but family members have sug-
gested that the argument was about money or women.The result was that Adolph left the company.His nick-
name was Adi,and using this and the first three letters of the family name,Dassler,he founded Adidas.
Rudolph relocated across the River Aurach and founded his own company,too.At first he wanted to
call it Ruda,but eventually he called it Puma,after the wild cat.The famous Puma logo of the jumping cat
has hardly changed since.
After the big split of 1948 Adolph and Rudolph never spoke to each other again and their companies
have now been in competition for over sixty years.Both companies were for many years the market leaders,
though Adidas has always been more successful than Puma. A hip hop group,Run DMC,has even written a
song called"My Adidas"and in 2005 Adidas bought Reebok,another big sports shoe company.
The terrible family argument should really be forgotten,but ever since it happened,over sixty years
ago ,the town has been split into two.Even now,some Adidas employees and Puma employees don't talk to
each other.
Nike makes more shoes than Adidas.
C:Not mentioned
You should have blended the butter with the sugar thoroughly.
In the background was that eternal hum.
A Lucky Break
Actor Antonio Banderas is used to breaking bones,and it always seems to happen when he's______(1) sport.In the film Play It to the Bone he______(2) the part of a middleweight boxer alongside Woody Harrelson.______(3)the making of the film Harrelson______(4) complaining that the fight______(5)weren't very convincing,so one day he suggested that he and Banderas should have a fight for real.The Spanish actor wasn't______(6)on the idea at first,but he was______(7) persuaded by his co-star to put on his gloves and climb into the boxing ring.However,when he realized how seriously his______(8) was taking it all,he began to regret his decision to fight.
And then in the third round,Harrelson hit Banderas______(9)hard in the face that he actually broke his nose.His wife,actress Melanie Griffith,was furious that he had been playing“silly macho games”.“She was right,”confesses Banderas,“and I was a fool to______(10)a risk like that in the middle of a movie.”
He was______(11)of the time he broke his leg during a football match in his native Malaga.He had always______(12)of becoming a soccer star,of performing in front of a big crowd,but doctors told him his playing days were probably over.“That's when I decided to take______(13) acting;I saw it as______(14)way of performing,and achieving recognition.What happened to me on that football______(15)was,you might say,my first lucky break.”
The World Cup
This summer's World Cup competition will see teams competing to play the world's best
football.But the football they play will not all be of the same kind.The fans expect different
styles of play from Brazil,Germany, or Italy.
What makes Brazilian football Brazilian?Our style of playing football contrasts with the
Europeans because of a combination of qualities of surprise,accuracy and good judgment.
This style has won Brazil five world cups.Yet many Brazilian fans only count four of these
victories.In 1994,the team abandoned this style for modern,scientific training and tactics.
The team won the cup,but in a boring way.
The Italians think differently."To many Italians,the score 0-0 has a glorious quality,
suggesting perfection,"says the British football writer Simon Kuper.In the Italian culture,
the idea of face is very important.This is why Italian teams are traditionally built around
strong defences.The Dutch footballer Johan Cruyff once said that Italian teams never
exactly beat you.It's just that you often lose to them.
In Holland,there is a tradition of decision making through argument and discussion.It is
a society where everybody is expected to have a point of view."Every Dutch player wants
to control the game,"says Arnold Muhren."You play football with your brains and not your
"A Dutch player argues,"says Simon Kuper."An English player obeys his superior.
He is a soldier."The qualities valued in English football are military-strength,aggression
and courage.This can make for exciting football.But it also means that the English find it
difficult to use skillful players.David Beckham is usually criticized for his failure to defend一
despite the fact that he is an attacker.
If the English like to fight,the Germans like to win.In recent years,Germany has tried
to change its image as a country of ruthless efficiency and a desire for victory at all costs.
But Germans are quite happy for these qualities to remain in their national football team.
"Football is a simple game,"Gary Lineker once said."You kick a ball about for ninety
minutes and in the end the Germans win."
It's difficult to predict who will win this year's World Cup.There is no strong favorite.But
a look at the track record of previous winners shows that it is the nations with the strongest
national characteristics in the football that perform best.It seems that you need to know
where you come from if you want to get to the top.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Brazilian style of playing football?
C:Good judgment.
D:Ruthless efficiency.
Her father was a quiet man with graceful manners.
A Lucky Break
Actor Antonio Banderas is used to breaking bones,and it always seems to happen when he's______(1) sport.In the film Play It to the Bone he______(2) the part of a middleweight boxer alongside Woody Harrelson.______(3)the making of the film Harrelson______(4) complaining that the fight______(5)weren't very convincing,so one day he suggested that he and Banderas should have a fight for real.The Spanish actor wasn't______(6)on the idea at first,but he was______(7) persuaded by his co-star to put on his gloves and climb into the boxing ring.However,when he realized how seriously his______(8) was taking it all,he began to regret his decision to fight.
And then in the third round,Harrelson hit Banderas______(9)hard in the face that he actually broke his nose.His wife,actress Melanie Griffith,was furious that he had been playing“silly macho games”.“She was right,”confesses Banderas,“and I was a fool to______(10)a risk like that in the middle of a movie.”
He was______(11)of the time he broke his leg during a football match in his native Malaga.He had always______(12)of becoming a soccer star,of performing in front of a big crowd,but doctors told him his playing days were probably over.“That's when I decided to take______(13) acting;I saw it as______(14)way of performing,and achieving recognition.What happened to me on that football______(15)was,you might say,my first lucky break.”
A Powerful Influence
There can be no doubt at all that the Internet has made a huge difference to our lives.Parents are worried that children spend too much time playing on the Internet,hardly______(1) doing anything else in their spare time.Naturally,parents are______(2)to find out why the Internet is so attractive,and they want to know if it can be______(3) to their children.Should parents worry if their children are spending that much time______(4) their computers?
Obviously,if children are bent over their computers for hours,______(5) in some game,in-stead of doing their homework,then something is wrong.Parents and children could decide how much use the child should______(6) of the Internet,and the child should give his or her______(7) that it won't interfere with homework.If the child is not______(8) to this arrangement,the parent can take more drastic______(9)dealing with a child's use of the Internet is not much dif-ferent from______(10) any other soft of bargain about behaviour.
Any parent who is______(11) alarmed about a child's behaviour should make an appointment to______(12)the matter with a teacher.Spending time in front of the screen does not ______(13)affect a child's performance at school.Even if a child is______(14)crazy about using the Internet, he or she is probably just______(15) through a phase,and in a few months there will be some-thing else to worry about!
Charter Schools
American public education has changed in recent years.One change is that increasing
numbers of American parents and teachers are starting independent public schools
_______(1)charter schools(特许学校).
In 1991,there were no charter schools in the United States.Today,more than 2,300
charter schools_________(2)in 34 states and the District of Columbia.575,000
students___________(3)these schools.The students are from 5 years of age through 18
or older.
A charter school is_________(4)by groups of parents,teachers and community
(社区)members. It is similar in some ways__________(5) a traditional public school.
It receives tax money to operate just as other public schools do.The_________(6)it
receives depends on the number of students.The charter school must prove to local or
state governments that its students are learning.These governments____________(7)the
school with the agreement,or charter that permits it to operate.
Unlike a traditional public school,__________(8),the charter school does not have
to obey most laws governing public schools.Local,state or federal governments cannot tell
it what to________(9).
Each school can choose its own goals and decide the ways it wants to___________
(10)those goals.Class sizes usually are smaller than in many traditional public schools.
Many students and parents say _________(11)in charter schools can be more
However,state education agencies,local education-governing committees and unions
often_________(12)charter schools.They say these schools may receive money
badly__________(13)by traditional public schools.Experts say some charter schools
are doing well while others are struggling.
Congress provided 200 million dollars for________(14)charter schools in the
2002 federal budget(预算).But,often the schools say they lack enough money for their
_________(15).Many also lack needed space.
Child Consultants
These days,"what do you want to do when you grow up?"is the wrong question to ask
children in the US
A.The________(1)should be:"what job are you doing now?"
American companies are employing more and more young people as consultants to evaluate
products for child ________(2).The 12-to-19 __________(3) group spends more
than $100 billion a year in the US
A.Specialist agencies have been created to help
manufacturers ask kids about all the latest trends in clothes,food and_________(4)
markets. One__________(5),Teenage Research Unlimited , has panels(评判小组)of
teenagers who give their verdict(裁决)on products. ________(6) jeans(牛仔裤).
Another company,Doyle Research Associated,holds two-hour sessions in a room
_________(7) the"imaginarium(想象室)."Children are encouraged to play games to
get________ (8)a creative mood.They have to write down any ideas that
__________(9)into their heads.
Some manufacturers prefer to do their own___________(10)research.The software
company Microsoft runs a weekly"Kid's Council"at its headquarters in Seattle,
___________(11)a panel of school children give their verdict on the________(12)
products and suggest new ones. One 11-year-old,Andrew Cooledge,told them that they
should make more computer games which would appeal equally__________(13)boys
and girls.Payments for the work are increasingly attractive.Andrew Cooledge was paid
$250 and given some software.__________(14),even if their ideas are valuable,the
children will never make a fortune.They cannot have the copyright to their ideas.These
are not jobs they can hold for long.__________(15)their mid-teens they can be told that
they are too old.
US to Start$3.2 Billion Child Health Study in January
A stu街that will cost $3.2 billion and last more than two decades to track the health of 100,000 US children from before birth to age 21 will be launched in January,US health officials said on Friday.
Officials from the US government's National Institutes of Health said they hope the study,to be conducted at 105 locations throughout the United States,can help identify early-life influences that affect later development,with the goal of learning new ways to treat or prevent illness.The study will examine hereditary(遗传的)and environmental factors such as exposure to certamn chemicals that affect health.Researchers will collect genetic and biological samples from people in the study as well as samples from the homes of the women and their babies including air,water,dust and materials used to construct their residences,the NIH said.
Officials said more than $200 million has been spent already and the study is projected to cost $3.2 billion."We anticipate that in the long term(从长远说来),what we learn from the study will result in a significant savings in the nation's health care costs,"Dr. Duane Alexander,who heads the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,told reporters.The study will begin in January when the University of North Carolina and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York start signing up pregnant women whose babies will then be followed to age 21.
Some of the early findings will be about factors behind preterm birth(早产),which has become more common in recent years,according to Dr. Peter Scheidt of the NIH,who heads the study.The people taking part will be from rural,urban and suburban areas,from all income and educational levels and from all racial groups,the NIH said.
The aim of the study is to find new ways to_______.
A:conduct research
B:track public health
C:prevent or treat illness
D:speed up development
Look on the Bright Side
Do you ever wish you were more optimistic,someone who always________(51)to be successful?
Having someone around__________(52)always fears the worst isn't really a lot of________(53).We
all know someone who sees a single cloud on a sunny day and says,"It looks__________(54)rain."But if
you catch yourself thinking such things,it's important to do something_________(55)it.
You can change your_________(56)of life,according to psychologists.It only takes a little effort,
and you'll find life more rewarding as a_________(57).Optimism,they say,is partly about self-respect
and confidence but it's also a more positive way of ______(58)at life and all it has to offer. Optimists
are more__________(59)to start new projects and are generally more prepared to take risks.
Upbringing is obviously very important in________(60)your attitude to the world.Some people are
brought up to_________(61)too much on others and grow up forever blaming other people when anything
_________(62)wrong. Most optimists,on the_______(63)hand,have been brought up not to
_________ (64)failure as the end of the world一they just___________(65)on with their lives.
The storm caused severe damage.
The First Bicycle
The history of the bicycle goes back more than 200 years.In 1791,Count de Sivrac ______(51)onlookers in a park in Paris as he showed______(52)his two-wheeled inven-tion,a machine called the celeriferé.It was basically an______(53)version of a children's toy which had been in use for many years.Sivrac's“celeriferé”had a wooden frame,made in the ______(54)of a horse,which was mounted on a wheel at either end.To ride it,you sat on a small seat,just like a modern bicycle,and pushed______(55)against the______(56)with your legs-there were no pedals.It was impossible to steer a celeriferé and it had no brakes,but despite these problems the invention very much______(57)to the fashionable young men of Paris.Soon they were______(58)races up and down the streets.
Minor______(59)werecommonasridersattemptedafinalburstof_____(60).Controlling the machine was difficult,as the only way to change______(61)was to pull up the front of the “celeriferé”and_____(62)it round while the front wheel was spinning in the air. “Celeriferés”were not popular for long,______(63),as the______(64)of no springs,no steering and rough roads made riding them very uncomfortable.Even so,the wooden celeriferé was the______(65)of the modern bicycle.
A: mixture
B: link
C: combination
D: union
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