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The Tough Grass that Sweetens Our Lives
Sugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their
houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖)and
was chewed on for its sweet taste.Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grown
throughout the world.___________(46)
Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things, from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine,
and,as the demand for sugar grew,the industry became larger and more profitable._________(47)Many
crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers'attempts to save them,and there were fears that the health
of the plant would continue to deteriorate.
In the 1960s,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger
and more able to resist disease.They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild
species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher,with genes from the more delicate,commercial type.
_________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is
expected to be incredibly profitable for the industry.
___________(49)Brazil,which produces one quarter of the world's sugar,has coordinated an interna-
tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo.Teams
of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are
important for the production of sugar and its overall health.
Despite all the research,however,we still do not fully understand how the genes function in sugar
cane.__________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a dis-
ease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scien-
tists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust.
A:The majority of the world's sugar now comes from this particular commercial species.
B:Unfortunately,however,the plant started to become weaker and more prone to disease.
C:Eventually,a commercial plant was developed which was 5 percent sweeter than before,but also much stronger and less likely to die from disease.
D:Since the 1960s,scientists have been analysing the mysteries of the sugar cane's genetic code.
E:One major gene has been identified by Dr Angelique D'Hont and her team in Montpelier,France.
F: Sugar cane is now much more vigorous and the supply of sugar is therefore more guaranteed.

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Something Men Do Not Like to Do
Eric Brown hates shopping."It's just not enjoyable to me,"said the 28-year-old
Chicago man who was carrying several shopping bags along the city's main street,Michigan
Avenue."When I'm out_______(1),I basically know what I want to get.I rush in.I
buy it.I_______(2)."
Common wisdom says that guys hate to shop.You can ask generations of men.But
people who study shopping say that a number of social,cultural and economic factors are
now_______(3)this "men-hate-to-shop" notion.
"_________(4)social class and age,men say they hate to shop,"says Sharon
Zukin,a City University of New York sociology professor."Yet when you ask them deeper
questions,it turns out that they__________(5)to shop.Men generally like to shop for
_________(6),music and hardware(硬件).But if you ask them about the shopping they
do for books or music,they'll say,'Well,that's not shopping.That's________(7)."'
In other words,what men and women call"buying things"and how they approach that
task are________(8).
Women will__________(9)through several 1,000-square-metre stores in search of
the perfect party dress.Men will wander through 100 Internet sites in search of the
________(10)digital camcorder(摄像放像机).
Women see shopping as a social event.Men see it as a mission or a________(11)
to be won.
"Men are frequently shopping to win,"says Mary Ann McGrath,a marketing professor
at Loyola University of Chicago."They want to get the best deal.They want to get the best
one,the last one and if they do that it________(12)them happy."
When women shop,"they're doing it in a way where they want_________(13)to be
very happy,"says McGrath."They're kind of shopping for love."
In fact,it is in clothing where we see a male-female________(14)most clearly.
Why,complain some men,are all male clothes navy,black or brown?But would they
wear light green and pink(粉红色的)?
These days,many guys wear a sort of"uniform",says Paco Underhill,author of
"Why We Buy"."It's been hard for them to understand what it means to be fashion-
conscious(时尚意识)in a business way. It becomes much, much easier _________
(15)you narrow your range of choices."
US Blacks Hard-hit by Cancer
Death rates for cancer are falling for all Americans,but black Americans are still more likely to die of
cancer than whites,the American Cancer Society said Monday.
In a special report on cancer and blacks, the organization said blacks are usually diagnosed with cancer
later than whites,and they are more likely to die of the disease.
This could be because of unequal access to medical care,because blacks are more likely to have other
diseases like diabetes as well,and perhaps because of differences in the biology of the cancer itself,the report added.
"In general,African Americans have]ess likelihood of surviving five years after diagnosis than whites for
all cancer sites and all stages of diagnosis,"the report said.
"In describing cancer statistics for African Americans,this report recognizes that socioeconomic dispari-
ties and unequal access to medical care may underlie many of the differences associated with race."
The Cancer Society said blacks should be encouraged to get check-ups earlier,when cancer is more
treatable,and it said more research was needed to see if biological differences play a role.
Since 1992,cancer death rates among black Americans_______.
A:have been going up and down
B:have remained stable
C:have increased
D:have fallen
Traffic in Our Cities
The volume of traffic in many cities in the world today continues to expand.This causes many problems,including serious air pollution,lengthy delays,and the greater risk______(1)accidents.Clearly,something must be done,but it is often difficult to persuade people to______(2)their habits and leave their cars at home. One possible______(3)is to make it more expensive for people to use their cars by ______(4)charges for parking and______(5)tougher fines for anyone who______(6) the law.In addition,drivers could be required to pay for using particular routes at different times of the day.This system,______(7)as“road pricing”,is already being introduced in a______(8)of cities,using a special electronic card______(9)to the windscreen of the car.
Another way of______(10)with the problem is to provide cheap parking on the ______(11)of the city,and strictly control the number of vehicles allowed into the centre.Drivers and their passengers then use a special bus______(12)for the final stage of their journey. Of course,the most important______(13)is to provide good public transport.How-ever,to get people to______(14)the comfort of their cars,public transport must be felt to be reliable,convenient and comfortable,with fares______(15)at an acceptable level.
Goal of American Education
Education is an enormous and expensive part of American life.Its size is matched by its variety.
Differences in American schools compared with those found in the majority of other countries lie in the
fact that education here has long been intended for everyone一not just for a privileged elite.Schools are ex-
pected to meet the needs of every child,regardless of ability,and also the needs of society itself. This means
that public schools offer more than academic subjects.It surprises many people when they come here to find
high schools offering such courses as typing,sewing,radio repair,computer programming or driver training,
along with traditional academic subjects such as mathematics,history,and languages.Students choose their
curricula depending on their interests,future goals,and level of ability. The underlying goal of American edu-
cation is to develop every child to the utmost of his or her own possibilities,and to give each one a sense of
civic and community consciousness.
Schools have traditionally played an important role in creating national unity and"Americanizing"the
millions of immigrants who have poured into this country from many different backgrounds and origins.
Schools still play a large role in the community,especially in the small towns.
The approach to teaching may seem unfamiliar to many,not only because it is informal,but also
because there is not much emphasis on learning facts.Instead,Americans try to teach their children to think
for themselves and to develop their own intellectual and creative abilities.Students spend much time,learning
how to use resource materials,libraries,statistics and computers.Americans believe that if children are
taught to reason well and to research well,they will be able to find whatever facts they need throughout the
rest of their lives.Knowing how to solve problems is considered more important than the accumulation of
This is America's answer to the searching question that thoughtful parents all over the world are asking
themselves in the fast-moving time:"How can one prepare today's child for a tomorrow that one can neither
predict nor understand?"
Which of the following best states the feature of American education that makes it different from education in other countries?
A:The large number of its schools.
B:The variety of the courses offered in its schools.
C:Its special consideration given to immigrants.
D:Its underlying goal to develop every child's abilities to the fullest extent.
Interior Design
Although interior design has existed since the beginning of architecture,its development into a specialized field is really quite recent.Interior designers have become important partly because of the many functions that might be________(51)in a single large building.
The importance of interior design becomes________(52)when we realize how much time we ________(53)surrounded by four walls.Whenever we need to be indoors,we want our surroundings to be________(54)attractive and comfortable as possible.We also expect________(55) place to be appropriate to its use.You would be________(56)if the inside of your bedroom were suddenly changed to look________(57)the inside of a restaurant.And you wouldn't feel________ (58)in a business office that has the appearance of a school.
It soon becomes clear that the interior designer's most important basic________(59)is the function of the particular________(60).For example,a theater with poor sight lines,poor sound-shaping qualities,and________(61)a few entries and exits will not work for________(62)
purpose,no matter how beautifully it might be________(63).Nevertheless,for any kind of space, the designer has to make many of the same kind of________(64).He or she must coordinate the
shapes,lighting and decoration of everything from ceiling to floor.________(65)addition,the designer must usually select furniture or design build-in furniture,according to the functions that need to be served.
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