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The Family
The structure of a family takes different forms around the world and even in the same society.The family's form changes as it adapts to changing social and economic influences.
Until recently,the most common form in North America was the nuclear family,consisting of a married couple with their minor children.The nuclear family is an independent unit,It must be prepared to fend for itself.Individual family members strongly depend on one another.There is little help from outside the family in emergencies.Elderly relatives of a nuclear family are cared for only if it is possible for the family to do so.In North America,the elderly often do not live with the family;they live in retirement communities and nursing homes.
There are many parallels between the nuclear family in industrial societies,such as
North America,and of families in societies such as that of the Inuits,who live in harsh environments.The nuclear family structure is well adapted to a life of mobility.In harsh conditions,mobility allows the family to hunt for food.For North Americans,the hunt for jobs and improved social status also requires mobility.
The nuclear family was not always the North American standard.In a more agrarian time,the small nuclear family was usually part of a larger extended family.This might have included grandparents,mother and father,brothers and sisters,uncles,aunts,and cousins.
In North America today,there is a dramatic rise in the number of single-parent households.
Twice as many households in the United States are headed by divorced,separated,or nevermarried individuals as are comprised of nuclear families.The structure of the family,not just in North America,but throughout the world,continues to change as it adapts to changing conditions.
The information in this passage would most likely be found in______.
A:an anthropology textbook
B:a biology textbook
C:a mathematics textbook
D:a geography textbook

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Battle Hymn of Tiger Mother
In general,I think Western parenting gives children too much freedom at too young an age.The average American child spends almost 70 percent more time watching television than attending school.In the recent PISA international tests,the US came out an embarrassing 23rd in science and 34th in math一with Shanghai children ranked No 1.Western children have alarming rates of alcohol and drug abuse and teenage pregnancy,too.On the other hand,American universities continue to be the envy of the world,and the US excels at teaching creativity,innovation and leadership.
What are the lessons for China then?Here are a few things China may be able to learn from the West.
First,while children in the West have too much choice,their counterparts in China may have too little.In between school,tutoring and lessons,many Chinese children work nonstop,getting little opportunity to have fun with friends,explore on their own and discover what they truly enjoy.What I learned is that as children grow up,parents should listen to their choices more carefully and gradually
give them more freedom to pursue their own passions.
Second,Chinese parents should pay more attention to their children's individual personalities. Every child is different. So depending on children's natural predispositions(秉性),different career paths will make them happy. Some people may find it more fulfilling to become a photographer or fashion designer instead of a doctor. If Chinese parents become more open-minded in what they consider"success",it may help lessen the intense competition and pressure that many Chinese children feel.
Finally,Chinese parents are good at getting their children to memorize,practice and drill一skills I believe the West needs more of一but they should also find ways to encourage creativity and initiative.My daughters were lucky because my husband taught them the value of independent thinking. He always asked"why".Just because someone told you so,how do you know it's right?
Parenting is the hardest job I've ever had.When Lulu rebelled and I began questioning everything I'd done.I feel very lucky that I adjusted in time一today my daughters and I are close friends一and I wanted to share my story with other mothers,because we are all struggling with the same problem:how can we raise happy,strong,self-reliant children?
The author has more than one children.
C:Not mentioned
Goal of American Education
Education is an enormous and expensive part of American life.Its size is matched by its variety.
Differences in American schools compared with those found in the majority of other countries lie in the
fact that education here has long been intended for everyone一not just for a privileged elite.Schools are ex-
pected to meet the needs of every child,regardless of ability,and also the needs of society itself. This means
that public schools offer more than academic subjects.It surprises many people when they come here to find
high schools offering such courses as typing,sewing,radio repair,computer programming or driver training,
along with traditional academic subjects such as mathematics,history,and languages.Students choose their
curricula depending on their interests,future goals,and level of ability. The underlying goal of American edu-
cation is to develop every child to the utmost of his or her own possibilities,and to give each one a sense of
civic and community consciousness.
Schools have traditionally played an important role in creating national unity and"Americanizing"the
millions of immigrants who have poured into this country from many different backgrounds and origins.
Schools still play a large role in the community,especially in the small towns.
The approach to teaching may seem unfamiliar to many,not only because it is informal,but also
because there is not much emphasis on learning facts.Instead,Americans try to teach their children to think
for themselves and to develop their own intellectual and creative abilities.Students spend much time,learning
how to use resource materials,libraries,statistics and computers.Americans believe that if children are
taught to reason well and to research well,they will be able to find whatever facts they need throughout the
rest of their lives.Knowing how to solve problems is considered more important than the accumulation of
This is America's answer to the searching question that thoughtful parents all over the world are asking
themselves in the fast-moving time:"How can one prepare today's child for a tomorrow that one can neither
predict nor understand?"
Which of the following best states the feature of American education that makes it different from education in other countries?
A:The large number of its schools.
B:The variety of the courses offered in its schools.
C:Its special consideration given to immigrants.
D:Its underlying goal to develop every child's abilities to the fullest extent.
It took us a long time to mend the old church.
Traffic in Our Cities
The volume of traffic in many cities in the world today continues to expand.This causes many problems,including serious air pollution,lengthy delays,and the greater risk______(1)accidents.Clearly,something must be done,but it is often difficult to persuade people to______(2)their habits and leave their cars at home. One possible______(3)is to make it more expensive for people to use their cars by ______(4)charges for parking and______(5)tougher fines for anyone who______(6) the law.In addition,drivers could be required to pay for using particular routes at different times of the day.This system,______(7)as“road pricing”,is already being introduced in a______(8)of cities,using a special electronic card______(9)to the windscreen of the car.
Another way of______(10)with the problem is to provide cheap parking on the ______(11)of the city,and strictly control the number of vehicles allowed into the centre.Drivers and their passengers then use a special bus______(12)for the final stage of their journey. Of course,the most important______(13)is to provide good public transport.How-ever,to get people to______(14)the comfort of their cars,public transport must be felt to be reliable,convenient and comfortable,with fares______(15)at an acceptable level.
Interior Design
Although interior design has existed since the beginning of architecture,its development into a specialized field is really quite recent.Interior designers have become important partly because of the many functions that might be________(51)in a single large building.
The importance of interior design becomes________(52)when we realize how much time we ________(53)surrounded by four walls.Whenever we need to be indoors,we want our surroundings to be________(54)attractive and comfortable as possible.We also expect________(55) place to be appropriate to its use.You would be________(56)if the inside of your bedroom were suddenly changed to look________(57)the inside of a restaurant.And you wouldn't feel________ (58)in a business office that has the appearance of a school.
It soon becomes clear that the interior designer's most important basic________(59)is the function of the particular________(60).For example,a theater with poor sight lines,poor sound-shaping qualities,and________(61)a few entries and exits will not work for________(62)
purpose,no matter how beautifully it might be________(63).Nevertheless,for any kind of space, the designer has to make many of the same kind of________(64).He or she must coordinate the
shapes,lighting and decoration of everything from ceiling to floor.________(65)addition,the designer must usually select furniture or design build-in furniture,according to the functions that need to be served.
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