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Words and Word Origins
When you are learning languages,what do you think is the most interesting?One of the most interesting of all studies is the study of words and word origins.
Each language is_________(51)of several earlier languages and the words of a language can sometimes be traced__________(52)through two or three different languages to their origins.Again a word from one language may pass into other languages and___________(53)a new meaning.
The word"etiquette,"which is__________(54)French origin and originally meant a label(标志),or a sign,passed into Spanish and kept its original meaning. So in Spanish the word"etiquette" today is used to _________(55) the small tags(标签)which a store __________(56) to a suit,a dress or a bottle.The word"etiquette"in French, _________(57), gradually developed a different meaning. It________(58)became the custom to write directions on small cards, or "etiquette",as to how visitors should dress themselves and act during an important ceremony at the royal court.________(59)the word"etiquette"began to indicate a system of correct manners for people to follow. With this meaning,the word passed into English.
Consider the word"breakfast"."To fast"is to go for some period of time without________ (60).Thus in the morning after many hours during the night without food,one_________(61)one's fast.
Consider the everyday English_________(62) "Goodbye".Many many years ago,people would say to each _________(63)on parting "God be with you".As this was ________(64)over and over millions of times,it gradually became________(65)to "Goodbye".

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1.All research to date on body image shows that women are much more critical of their appearance than men and much less likely to admire what they see in the mirror. Up to 8 out of 10 women are dissatisfied with their reflection,and more than half may see a distorted image.
2.Men looking in the mirror are more likely to be either pleased with what they see or indifferent. Research shows that men generally have a much more positive body-image than women一if anything,they may tend to over-estimate their attractiveness.Some men looking in the mirror may literally not see the flaws in their appearance.
3.Why are women too much more self-critical than men?Because women are judged on their appearance more than men,and standards of female beauty are considerably higher and more inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the inflexible.Women are continually bombarded with images of the"ideal"face.And constant exposure to idealized images of female beauty on TV,magazines and billboards makes exceptional good looks seem normal and anything short of perfection seem abnormal and ugly.It has been estimated that young women now see more images of outstandingly beautiful women in one day than our mothers saw throughout their entire adolescence.
4.Also,most women are trying to achieve the impossible:standards of female beauty have in fact become progressively more unrealistic during the last century.In 1917,the physically perfect woman was about 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighed nearly 10 stone(约140磅).Even 25 years ago, top models and beauty queens weighed only 8% less than the average woman,now they weigh 23% less.The current media ideal for women is achievable by less than 5% of the female population一and that's just in terms of weight and size.If you want the ideal shape,face,etc, it's probably more like 1%.
Paragraph 4_________
A:How do men view their appearance?
B:How can women make themselves more beautiful?
C:Why do men and women view their appearance differently?
D:Is it possible for women to meet the standards of perfect beauty?
E:How do people judge women and men?
F: How do women view their appearance?
Research shows we make up our minds about people through unspoken communication within seven seconds of meeting them. Consciously or unconsciously,we show our true feelings with our eyes,faces,bodies and attitudes,causing a chain of reactions,ranging from comfort to fear.
Think about some of your most unforgettable meetings:an introduction to your future spouse,a job interview,an encounter with a stranger. Focus on the first seven seconds.What did you feel and think?How did you"read"the other person?How do you think he read you?
You are the message.For 25 years I've worked with thousands who want to be successful.I've helped them make persuasive presentations,answer unfriendly questions,communicate more effectively.The secret has always been you are the message.Others will want to be with you and help you if you use your good qualities.They include:physical appearance,energy,rate of speech, pitch and tone of voice,gestures,expression through the eyes,and the ability to hold the interest of others.Others form an impressiont about you based on these.
Think of times when you know you made a good impression.What made you successful?You were committed to what you were talking about and so absorbed in the moment you lost all self-con-sciousness.
Many books advise you to stride into a room and impress others with your qualities.They instruct you to greet them with"power handshakes"and tell you to fix your eyes on the other person. If you follow all this advice,you'll drive everyone crazy一including yourself.
The trick is to be consistent at your best.The most effective people never change from one situation to another. They're the same whether they're having a conversation,addressing their garden club or being interviewed for a job.They communicate with their whole being;the tones of their voices and their gestures match their words.
Physical appearance is the most important quality which may help us to communicate with others。
C:Not mentioned
Intelligence一a Changed View
1.Intelligence was believed to be a fixed entity,some faculty of the mind that we all possess and which determines in some way the extent of our achievements.its value therefore,was as a predictor of children's future learning.If they differed markedly in their ability to learn complex tasks, then it was clearly necessary to educate them differently and the need for different types of school and even different ability groups within school was obvious.Intelligence tests could be used for streaming children according to ability at an early age,and at 11 these tests were superior to measures of attainment for selecting children for different types of secondary education.
2.Today,we are beginning to think differently. In the last few years,research has thrown doubt on the view that innate intelligence can ever be measured and on the very nature of intelligence itself. There is considerable evidence now which shows the great influence of environment both on achievement and intelligence.Children with poor home backgrounds not only do less well in their school work and intelligence tests but their performance tends to deteriorate gradually compared with that of their more fortunate classmates.
3.There are evidences that support the view that we have to distinguish between genetic intelligence and observed intelligence.Any deficiency in the appropriate genes will restrict development no matter how stimulating the environment. We cannot observe and measure innate intelligence,whereas we can observe and measure the effects of the interaction of whatever is inherited with whatever stimulation has been received from the environment. Researches have been investigating what happens in this interaction.
4.Two major findings have emerged from these researches.Firstly,the greater part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.It is estimated that 50 percent of measurable intelligence at age 17 is already predictable by the age of four. Secondly,the most important factors in the environment are language and psychological aspects of the parent-child relationship.Much of the difference in measured intelligence between "privileged" and "disadvantaged" children may be due to the latter's lack of appropriate verbal stimulation and the poverty of their perceptual experiences.
5.These research findings have led to a revision in our understanding of the nature of intelligence.Instead of it being some largely inherited fixed power of the mind,we now see it as a set of development skills with which a person copes with any environment. These skills have to be learned and,indeed,one of them is learning how to learn.
6.The modern ideas concerning the nature of intelligence are bound to have some effect on our school system. In one respect a change is already occurring. With the move toward comprehensive education and the development of unstreamed classes,fewer children will be given the label "low IQ"which must inevitably condemn a child in his own,if not society's eyes. The idea that we can teach children to be intelligent in the same way that we can teach them reading or arithmetic is accepted by more and more people.
It was once believed_________,and thus we can tell how successful he/she will be in the future according to his/her intelligence.
A:born to be more intelligent or less intelligent
B:have a better chance to develop his intelligence
C:taught to be more intelligent
D:that intelligence was something a baby was born with
E:and because of the lack of communication with his classmates
F: and partly has to do with a child's living environment
More About Alzheimer' s Disease
Scientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's
disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict who is at risk of getting this neurological
The only current means of diagnosing the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of
tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia.
"Since Alois Alzheimer described the disease nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a
way to accurately diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute
of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if confirmed,could prove a big
step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."
Alzheimer's is the single greatest cause of mental deterioration in older people,affecting between 2.5
million and 4 million people in the United States alone.The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and
the ability to function,and eventually causes death. There is currently no known treatment for the disease.
Researchers discovered that the skin cells of Alzheimer's patients have defects that interfere with their
ability to regulate the flow of potassium in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the
skin suggests that Alzheimer's results from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may
be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects affect the cells in the brain,scientists said.
The flow of potassium is especially critical in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also
found two other defects that affect the cells' supply of calcium,another critical element.
One test developed by researches calls for growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing
them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that govern the flow of potassium are
open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.
A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be
proven it would be an important development,but he cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's
have been disappointing.
The newly developed skin tests may be used in the future to allow doctors to________.
A:cure those with Alzheimer's disease
B:discover the cause of Alzheimer's disease
C:predict who might get Alzheimer's disease
D:find the consequences of Alzheimer's disease
Energy Cycle
Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful?This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation.He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.
During the hours when you labor through your work you may say that you are"hot".That's true.The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at this peak.For some people the peak comes during the morning. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so,but it leads to such familiar words as:"Get up, John!You'll be late for work again!"The possible explanation to the trouble is he is at his tempera-ture-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean,and which cycle each member of the family has.
You can't change your energy cycle,but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit can help,Dr. Kleitman believes.Maybe you're sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway.Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to.If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day,rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle,but you'll get up steam and work better at your low point.
Get off to a slow start,which saves your energy.Get up with a leisurely yawn and stretch.Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before.Whenever possible,do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy for your sharper hours.
According to the passage,many family quarrels are resulted from awareness of different energy cycles.
C:Not mentioned
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