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Even Intelligent People Can Fail
1 The striking thing about the innovators who succeeded in making our modern world is
how often they failed.Turn on a light,take a photograph,watch TV,search the Web,jet
across the Pacific Ocean, talk on a celiphone(手机).The innovators who left us these
things had to find the way to success through a maze(错综复杂)of wrong turns.
2 We have just celebrated the 125th anniversary of American innovator Thomas Edison's
success in heating a thin line to white-hot heat for 14 hours in his lab in New Jersey,U.S.
He did that on October 22,1879,and followed up a month later by keeping a thread of
common cardboard alight(点亮着的)in an airless space for 45 hours.Three years later
he went on to light up half a square mile of downtown Manhattan,even though only one of
the six power plants in his design worked when he turned it on,on September 4,1882.
3 "Many of life's failures,"the supreme innovator said,"are people who did not realize
how close they were to success when they gave up."Before that magical moment in
October 1879,Edison had worked out no fewer than 3,000 theories about electric light,but
in only two cases did his experiments work.
4 No one likes failure,but the smart innovators learn from it.Mark Gumz,the head of
the camera maker Olympus America Inc,attributes some of the company's successes in
technology to understanding failure.His popular phrase is:"You only fail when you quit."
5 Over two centuries,the most common quality of the innovators has been persistence.
That is another way of saying they had the emotional ability to keep up what they were
doing.Walt Disney,the founder of Disneyland,was so broke after a succession of
financial failures that he was left shoeless in his office because he could not afford the U.S.
$1.50 to get his shoes from the repair shop.Pioneering car maker Henry Ford failed with
one company and was forced out of another before he developed the Model T car.
6 Failure is harder to bear in today's open,accelerated world.Hardly any innovation works the
first time.But an impatient society and the media want instant success.When American music
and movie master David Geffen had a difficult time,a critic said nastily that the only difference
between Geffen Records(Geffen's company)and the Titanic(the ship that went down)was
that the Titanic had better music.Actually,it wasn't.After four years of losses,Geffen had so
many hits(成功的作品)he could afford a ship as big as the Titanic all to himself.
Paragraph 4_________
A:Importance of learning from failure
B:Quality shared by most innovators
C:Edison's innovation
D:Edison's comment on failure
E:Contributions made by innovators
F:Miseries endured by innovators

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Is the Tie a Necessity?
Ties,or neckties,have been a symbol of politeness and elegance in Britain for
centuries.But the casual Prime Minister Tony Blair has problems with them.Reports
suggest that even the civil servants may stop wearing ties.So,are the famously formal
British really going to abandon the neckties?
Maybe.Last week,the UK's Cabinet Secretary Andrew Turnbull openly welcomed a
tieless era.He hinted that civil servants would soon be free of the costliest 12 inches of
fabric that most men ever buy in their lives.
In fact,Blair showed this attitude when he had his first guests to a cocktail party.Many
of them were celebrities(知名人士)without ties, which would have been unimaginable
even in the recent past.
For some more conservative British,the tie is a must for proper appearance.Earlier,
Labor leader Jim Callaghan said he would have died rather than have his children seen in
public without a tie.For people like Callaghan,the tie was a sign of being complete,of
showing respect.Men were supposed to wear a tie when going to church,to work in the
office,to a party-almost every social occasion.
But today,people have begun to accept a casual style even for formal occasions.
The origin of the tie is tricky.It started as something called simply a"band".The term
could mean anything around a man's neck.It appeared in finer ways in the 1630s.
Frenchmen showed a love of this particular fashion statement.Their neckwear(颈饰)
impressed Charles Ⅱ,the king of England who was exiled(流放)to France at that time.
When he returned to England in 1660,he brought this new fashion item along with him.
It wasn't,however,until the late 18th century that fancy young men introduced a more
colorful,flowing piece of cloth that eventually became known as the tie.Then,clubs,
military institutions and schools began to use colored and patterned ties to indicate the
wearer's membership in the late 19th century.After that,the tie became a necessary item of
clothing for British gentlemen.
But now,even gentlemen are getting tired of ties.Anyway,the day feels a bit easier
when you wake up without having to decide which tie suits you and your mood.
The tie symbolizes all of the following except
Going Back to Its Birthplace
No sporting event takes hold of the world's attention and imagination like the Olympic
Games.The football World Cup fascinates fans in Europe and South America;baseball's
World Series is required viewing in North America;and the World Table Tennis
Championships attracts the most interest in Asia.
But the Olympics belong to the whole world.Now,after travelling to 17 countries over
108 years,the summer Games are returning to Athens,the place where the first modern
Olympics was held.
Participation in the Games is looked on not only as an achievement,but also as an
honour. The 1 6 days between August 1 3 and 29 will see a record 202 countries compete,
up from Sydney's 199.Afghanistan is back,having been banned from Sydney because the
Taliban government didn't let women do sports.There is also a place for newcomers East
Timor and Kiribati.
A total of 10,500 athletes will compete in 28 sports,watched by 5.3 million ticket-
paying viewers as well as a television audience of 4 billion.
Athens is to use its rich history and culture to make the Olympics as special as
possible.The Games will open with cycling events which start in front of the Parthenon and
Acropolis monuments.The final event will be a historic men's marathon following the original
route run by Phidippides in 490 BC to bring news of victory over the Persians.
The ancient stadium at Olympia,first used for the Games nearly three centuries ago,
will stage the shot put competitions.And the Panathenian Stadium,where the first modern
Olympics was held,is to host the archery(射箭)events.
If the well-known ancient sites deliver a great sense of history to the Games,the 39
new venues add a modern touch to the city of Athens.The main Olympic stadium,with a
giant glass and steel roof, is the landmark(标志)building of the Olympics.
"We believe that we will organize a'magical'Games,"said Athens 2004 President
Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki. "Our history with the Olympic Games goes back nearly
3,000 years,and Athens 2004 could be the best ever."
Athens 2004 has been proven to be the best Olympic Games.
C:Not mentioned
Toads are Arthritic and in Pain
Arthritis(关节炎)is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads(蟾蜍),a big
problem in the north of Australia,are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone,a new study
has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs._________(46)
The large yellow toads,native to South and Central America,were introduced into the north-eastern Aus-
tralian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugarcane
crops.'Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country,and they are rapidly spreading
through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across
more than one million square kilometres._________(47)A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s
but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.
The toads have severely affected ecosystems in Australia.Animals,and sometimes pets,that eat the toads
die immediately from their poison,and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth.
A co-author of the new study,Rick Shine,a professor at the University of Sydney,says that little alien-
tion has been given to the problems that toads face.Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from
Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different.They were
active,sprinting down roads and breeding quickly.
According to the results of the study,the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometre a night._________(49)
But speed and strength come at a price一arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed
on them.
In laboratory tests,the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping,arthritic toads would
travel less distance with each hop(跳跃)._________( 50 ) These toads are so programmed to move,
apparently,that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones,continuing their
constant march across the landscape.
A:Toads are not built to be road runners一they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
B:The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
C:Furthermore,they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
D:Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances,while the others are being left behind.
F:But this advantage also has a big drawback一up to 10%of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
F:But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory,the researchers found.
The Smell of Money
For many years large supermarkets have been encouraging us to spend money by pumping the smell of
freshly-baked bread into their stores. Now Dale Air, a leading firm of aroma(香气)consultants, has been
approached by Barclay's Bank to develop suitable artificial smells for their banks.Researchers have suggested
that surrounding customers with the"smell of money"will encourage them to feel relaxed and optimistic and
give them added confidence in the bank's security and professionalism.
But before a smell can be manufactured and introduced into banks' air conditioning systems,it must be
identified and chemically analyzed,and this has proved to be difficult.The problem is that banknotes and
coins tend to pick up the smell of their surroundings.So cash that has been sitting in a cash register at a
fishmonger's(鱼贩)will smell of fish,and banknotes used to pay for meals in restaurants will tend to smell
of food.
It may be a challenge,but aroma experts have little doubt that the use of artificial smells can be an effective
form of subconscious advertising. Lunn Poly,a British travel company,introduced the smell of coconuts(椰
子)into its travel agencies and saw a big increase in spending by holiday makers.Many cafs now have elec-
tric dispensers(自动售货机)that release the smell of freshly roasted coffee near their entrances, subtly
encouraging customers to come in and have a drink or snack. Even prestigious car maker Rolls-Royce has
been spraying the inside of its cars to enhance the smell of the leather seats.
"The sense of smell is probably the most basic and primitive of all human senses,"explains researcher
Jim O'Riordan. "There is a direct pathway from the olfactory(嗅觉的)organs in the nose to the brain."It
is certainly true that most people find certain smells incredibly strong,stirring memories and feelings in a way
that few other stimulants(刺激物)can rival. It is a phenomenon marketing consultants have long recog-
nized,but until recently have been unable to harness."We've made great progress but the technology of
odour production is still in its infancy,"says O'Riordan."Who knows where it will take us."
Researchers think__________.
A:artificial smells help to improve people's memory
B:the technology to produce artificial smells is in the early stage
C:artificial smells are harmful
D:the production of artificial smells is profitable
Man of Few Words
Everyone chases success,but not all of us want to be famous.
South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is______(51)for keeping to himself.When the 63-year-old man was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature,reporters were warned that they would find him"particularly difficult to______(52)".
Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the University of Chicago.He seemed ______(53)by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize.
"It came as a complete surprise.I wasn't even aware they were due to make the announcement,"he said.His_______(54)of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend prize-giving in Stockholm, Sweden,on December 10.But despite being described as_______(55)to track down,the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.
Born in Cape Town,South Africa,to an English-speaking family,Coetzee______(56)his break- through in 1980 with the novel"Waiting for the Barbarians".He_______(57)his place among the wor1d's leading writers with two Booker prize victories,Britain's highest honour for novels.He first _______(58)in 1983 for the Life and Times of Michael K and his second title came in 1999 for Disgrace.
A major theme in his work is South Africa's former apartheid system,which divided whites from blacks. _______(59)with the problems of violence,crime and racial division that still exist in the country,his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid_______(60)within."I have always been more interested in the past than the future,"he said in a rare interview.
"The past_______(61)its shadow over the present.I hope I have made one or two people think _______(62)about whether they want to forget the past completely."In fact,this purity in his writing seems to be______(63)in his personal life.Coetzee is a vegetarian,a cyclist rather than a motorist and he doesn't drink alcohol.But what he has______(64)to literature,culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up."In looking at weakness and failure in life,"the Noble prize judging panel said,"Coetzee's work_______(65)the divine spark in man."
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