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Good Table Manners
Manners play an important part in making a favorable impression at the dinner table.
Here are some general rules:
The meal begins when the host unfolds his or her napkin.This is your signal to do the
same,so place your napkin on your lap.Unfold it completely if it is a small napkin,or in
half, lengthwise(纵向地),if it is a large dinner napkin.
If you need to leave the table during the meal,place your napkin on your chair as a
signal to your server that you will be returning.Once the meal is over,place your napkin
neatly on the table to the right of your dinner plate.Do not refold it.
Use a napkin only for your mouth.Never use it for your nose,face or forehead.
Use of utensils(餐具)
Start with the knife,fork or spoon furthest from your plate,and work your way in,
using one utensil for each course.
If soup is served,remember to spoon away from yourself.This helps stop the drips.
Do not put the entire soup spoon in your mouth.Instead,fill a soup spoon about 75 per
cent with soup,and sip(啜饮)it from the side noiselessly.
After finishing dinner,place the knife and fork parallel to one another across the plate
with the knife blade facing inward toward the plate.
Using your fingers
Here's a list of finger foods:sandwiches,cookies,small fruits or berries with stems,
French fries and potato chips,and hamburgers.
Chew(咀嚼)with your mouth closed and don't make noise;don't talk with your mouth
Bread must be broken with your hands.It is never cut with a knife.
Don't pick something out of your teeth.Instead,excuse yourself to the bathroom.
If possible,try not to cough at the table.
Do not put your elbows(肘)on the table.In France, it is essential to have both
hands above the table at the same time.
Do not put bones or anything else on the table.Things that are not eaten should be put
on your plate.
All of the following are finger foods except

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Preserve the Environment
Throughout history man has changed his physical environment in order to improve his way of life.
With the tools of technology he has altered many physical features of the earth.He has transformed
woodlands into farmland,and made lakes and reservoirs out of rivers for irrigation purposes or hydroelectric
power. Man has also modified the face of the earth by draining marshes and cutting through mountains to
build roads and railways.
However,man's changes to the physical environment have not always had beneficial results.Today,
pollution of the air and water is an increasing danger to the health of the planet.Each day thousands of tons
of gases come out of the exhausts of motor vehicles;smoke from factories pollutes the air of industrialized areas
and the surrounding areas of countryside.The air in cities is becoming increasingly unhealthy.
The pollution of water is equally harmful.In the sea,pollution from oil is increasing and is killing enor-
mous numbers of algae(水藻),fish and birds.The whole ecological balance of the sea is being changed.
The same problem exists in rivers.Industrial wastes have already made many rivers lifeless.
Conservationists believe that it is now necessary for man to limit the growth of technology in order to sur-
vive on earth.
According to the passage,pollution of the air and water is caused by__________.
A:thousands of tons of gases coming out of the exhausts of motor vehicles
B:the changes of the environment that technology has brought to man
C:the increasing amount of oil that has been produced
D:industrial wastes discharged into rivers
We are aware of the 【potential】 problems.
A. possible B. global C. ongoing D. central
The World's Best-Selling Medicine
Since ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain. The willow tree contains salicylic acid(水杨酸).This stops pain, but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In 1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.
However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.
In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid. He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.
His father's pain went away,and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.
Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company. He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well.Bayer decided to make the drug.
They called it aspirin and put the Bayer name on every pill.
Aspirin was an immediate success. Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need. Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective. It also lowered fevers.
Aspirin was a wonder drug.
At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients. In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores.In the United States,Bayer had a patent(专利权)on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time,Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too.However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.
By the 1950s,new painkillers were on the market. Aspirin was no longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the l970s they got a surprise. Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people. A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks.In 1982,he won the Nobel prize for his research. Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to prevent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it. It has also made a lot of mon-ey for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it!
Why was Felix Hoffmann looking for a painkiller?
A: His company told him to do that.
B: His father was in pain.
C: He wanted to make a lot of money.
D: He suffered from headache.
A Health Profile
A health profile is a portrait of all of the factors that influence your health.To draw your health profile,
you will__________(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to
_________(52)work,how your daily__________(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much
timE per week you________(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage_________(55),how
stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and_______(56)
or not you have any one of a number of addictions._______(57)this portrait,you should have a checkup
to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve________(58)a
haseline,to which you can then comPare later tests.
_________(59)this profile 15 thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities
based__________(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a
high-stress______(61),are overweight,。moke a pack of cigaretteo a day,and uoe marijuana occaoional-
ly on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed_________(62)losing the excess weight,reducing
the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some________(63)to those
martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person
who has never been sick a day in his life,who 15__________(64)excellent health,a good look at all health
habits and at work and home environments may suggest changes that will_______(65)him in the future.
Shopping at Second-Hand Clothing Stores
When 33-year-old Pete Barth was in college,shopping at second-hand clothing stores was just something
he did一“like changing the tires on his car."He looked at his budget and decided he could save a lot of
money by shopping for clothes at
thrift shops.
" Even new clothes are fairly disposable(可丢掉的)and worn out after a couple of years , " Barth said.
"In thrift shops,you can find some great stuff whose quality is better than new clothes."
Since then,Barth,who works at a Goodwill thrift shop in the US state of Florida,has found that there are
all kinds of reasons for shopping for second一hand clothing.Some people,like him,shop to save money.Some
shop for a crazy-looking shirt. And some shop as a means of conserving energy and helping the environment.
Pat Akins , an accountant at a Florida Salvation Army (SA)(救世军)thrift shop, said that, for her,
shopping at thrift shops is a way to help the environment.
"When my daughter was little,we looked at it as recycling,"Akins said."Also,why pay 30 dollars for
a new coat when you can get another one for a lot less?"
Akins said that the SA has shops all over the US一“some as big as department stores".All of the
clothes are donated(捐赠),and when they have a surplus(盈余),they' ll have "stuff-a-bag" specials,
where customers can fill a grocery sack with clothes for only 5 or 10 dollars.
Julia Slocum,22,points out,however,that the huge amount of second-hand clothing in the US is the
result of American wastefulness.
"I'd say that second-hand stores are the result of our wasteful,materialistic culture,"said Slocum,who
works for a pro-conservation organization,the Center for a New American Dream."Thrift shops prevent the
waste from going to landfills(垃圾填埋场);they give clothing a second life , provide cheaper clothing for
those who can' t afford new ones and generate(生成)income for charities. They also provide a way for the
wealthy and middle classes to shed(摆脱)some of the guilt for their level of consumption."
The word"thrift"in Paragraph 1 could be best replaced by__________.
B:one dollar
C:first class
D:two dollars
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